ThinkSpatial: Martin Doerr

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On Thursday, September 17, 2020, The UCSB brown-bag forum on spatial thinking presents

Identifiable Individuals and Reality
What Do We Describe and Why

 

Dr. Martin Doerr

Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas (FORTH)

10:00 a.m. Tuesday, September 17, 2020 | Zoom link*

Abstract:

Data of empirical-descriptive sciences, such as cultural heritage studies, geography, geology, biodiversity are usually kept in predicate-logic based information systems that refer to things in reality by unique identifiers. This can only work, if the referred features or phenomena in reality are distinct and can diachronically be identified in the same way by independent observers without a dialogue between them. In this presentation, we argue that only a smaller part of the features in our environment is sufficiently distinct over a useful time-span to form “identifiable individuals”. Different ontological categories can provide specific criteria about how parts of reality can be subdivided into “identifiable individuals” that turn out to be useful for modelling the behaviour of reality as a result of observation, rather than convention, the so-called ontological individuation. We demonstrate (1) that there are always cases in which individuality is undecidable basically within all such categories, (2) that multiple individuals may overlap in substance in characteristic ways and (3) that no such individual has precise spatiotemporal boundaries due to a variety of causes.

We argue that the kinds of conditions allowing for ontological individuation have widely not been studied, as well as what properties make phenomena not suited for individuation, such as clouds, stages of growth, flowing matter etc. We further propose that the description of delimited situations in such systems, be it after observation or in prediction, needs to relate to identifiable individuals as reference. This epistemic individuation inherits the indeterminacy of the individuals of reference. We further propose that many kinds of scientific description of reality is an approximation that can be better processed via outer bounds. As a practical application, we show how adequate individuation criteria can substantially reduce the ambiguity of spatiotemporal gazetteers.

Bio:

Dr. Martin Doerr is a Research Director at the Information Systems Laboratory and honorary head of the Centre for Cultural Informatics of the Institute of Computer Science, FORTH. He has been leading the development of systems for knowledge representation and terminology, metadata and content management. He has been leading or participating in a series of national and international projects for cultural information systems. His long-standing interdisciplinary work and collaboration with the International Council of Museums on modeling cultural-historical information has resulted besides others in an ISO Standard, ISO21127:2006, a core ontology for the purpose of schema integration across institutions.

The objectives of the ThinkSpatial brown-bag presentations are to exchange ideas about spatial perspectives in research and teaching, to broaden communication and cooperation across disciplines among faculty and graduate students, and to encourage the sharing of tools and concepts.

* Please contact Karen Doehner, kdoehner@spatial.ucsb.edu or Emmanuel Papadakis epd@ucsb.edu, to review and schedule possible discussion topics or presentations that share your disciplinary interest in spatial thinking. If you are participating from outside the UCSB community, please also ask for access credentials.

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ThinkSpatial: Liz Ackert

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On Tuesday, June 2, 2020, The UCSB brown-bag forum on spatial thinking presents

Latinx Destinations and Health

 

Liz Ackert

Department of Geography
University of California, Santa Barbara

11:30 a.m. (PST) Tuesday, June 2, 2020

Zoom* : https://ucsb.zoom.us/j/98445704485

Abstract:

The geography of Latinx areas of residence in the U.S. has shifted dramatically in the last three decades, with the Latinx population  increasingly living in urban, suburban, and rural areas outside of established immigrant gateways such as California and Texas. This project addresses the consequences of the geographic diversification of Latinx settlement in the U.S. for patterns of health and well-being among the Latinx population. Amidst the changing geography of Latinx settlement, one question of interest is whether emerging areas of Latinx settlement, including “new” and “other” areas of settlement, have more positive or negative contextual resources and intergroup relations related to health and well-being than established gateways. In this ThinkSpatial talk, I present initial exploratory results from an assessment of variation in health care resources and immigration enforcement policies across three types of Latinx counties: 1) Established Destinations; 2) New Destinations, and; 3) Other Destinations. I draw from an array of publicly-available data sources, including the U.S. decennial censuses, the Health Resources and Services Administration (Area Health Resource Files, Health Professional Shortage Areas data, and Medically Underserved Areas data), the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (County Health Rankings and Roadmaps), and the Migration Policy Institute and Immigrant Legal Resource Center (287g program participation information). This work has important implications
for the current COVID19 pandemic, as it reveals the types of communities where Latinx populations may be lacking health care resources and where they may face contextual barriers to accessing health care.

Bio:

Liz Ackert is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Geography at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Her research interests include racial/ethnic inequality, immigration, education, health disparities, urban geography, and quantitative methods. Her work examines
explanations for why racial/ethnic and immigrant-origin groups are unequally distributed across contexts– including schools, neighborhoods, and immigrant destinations– and evaluates the consequences of this contextual inequality for disparities in outcomes in domains such as education, residential mobility, and health. Dr. Ackert is particularly interested in understanding how the attributes of immigrant-receiving contexts, including states, communities, neighborhoods, and schools, influence the health and well-being of Latinx  children and youth.

Material:

Ackert_ThinkSpatial_Talk_Web_June2_2020

* Note, if you are participating from outside the UCSB community, please contact epd@ucsb.edu to get access to the credentials.

The objectives of the ThinkSpatial brown-bag presentations are to exchange ideas about spatial perspectives in research and teaching, to broaden communication and cooperation across disciplines among faculty and graduate students, and to encourage the sharing of tools and concepts.

Please contact Emmanuel Papadakis (epd@ucsb.edu) to review and schedule possible discussion topics or presentations that share your disciplinary interest in spatial thinking.

Follow spatial@ucsb on Twitter | Google+ | Google Calendar

ThinkSpatial: Alina Ristea

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On Tuesday, May 5, 2020, The UCSB brown-bag forum on spatial thinking presents

Spatial Crime Patterns vs Safety Perception: Mixed Experiments

 

Alina Ristea

Boston Area Research Initiative (BARI)
School of Public Policy and Urban Affairs
Northeastern University, Boston

11:30 a.m. (PST) Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Zoom* : https://ucsb.zoom.us/j/98445704485

Abstract:
The occurrence of crime depends on a multitude of factors, namely crime attractors or generators, and it shows high spatiotemporal complexity. This presentation is targeting two opposite crime perspectives: (1) objective crime, and (2) subjective crime – perceived crime safety – fear of crime. This work contributes to the research on environmental crime analysis and prediction by pursuing two objectives. The  first one is to uncover spatial relationships between crime occurrences and nearby social media activity, whereas the second one to estimate the possible influence of social media posts on crime prediction models. The focus of this part of the presentation is on sporting events, suggesting that spatial crime patterns and people’s social posts are similar on event days and more dissimilar on non-event days. The subjectivity in crime is captured through the lenses of fear of crime. This project is an approach to amalgamate the knowledge about safety features already studied in the urban environment. The primary goal of this work is in using a fusion methodology for integrating a systematic video data acquisition, geographical storytelling, and human physiological measurements to build upon the analysis of the urban environment through a GIS-based platform. The three main objectives of this project are: (1) to test the compatibility of data acquisition through mixed technologies; (2) to extract safety information from the data acquired using mixed methods and to implement it in a GIS-based model; (3) to compare official crime data reported to the police, urban blight indicators and people’s perceived safety, extracted from the mixed-method approach.

Bio:
Alina Ristea is a Postdoctoral Research Associate at the Boston Area Research Initiative (BARI), part of the School of Public Policy and Urban Affairs, Northeastern University. She has a Ph.D. in Applied Geoinformatics from the University of Salzburg, Austria (2019), entitled
Integration and Evaluation of Social Media in Crime Prediction Models. Her background studies are in the domains of geography, cartography, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Her research interests are highly interdisciplinary, and include interdisciplinary level, focusing among others on combining elements of GIScience, urban informatics, neighborhood effects, spatiotemporal crime analysis, social media mining, predictive analytics, and safety perception. She is a guest editor for the International Journal of Geo-Information (IJGI), by MDPI: Special Issue Urban Crime Mapping and Analysis Using GIS. In addition, she is a member of the International Association of Crime Analysts (IACA) and the American Association of Geographers (AAG). Among others, she won a Marshall Plan Scholarship (February-May 2019), from the Austrian Marshall Plan Foundation, for a research stay at Louisiana State University (LSU).

Material:

ThinkSpatial - Alina Ristea

 

* Note, if you are participating from outside the UCSB community, please contact epd@ucsb.edu to get access to the credentials.

The objectives of the ThinkSpatial brown-bag presentations are to exchange ideas about spatial perspectives in research and teaching, to broaden communication and cooperation across disciplines among faculty and graduate students, and to encourage the sharing of tools and concepts.

Please contact Emmanuel Papadakis (epd@ucsb.edu) to review and schedule possible discussion topics or presentations that share your disciplinary interest in spatial thinking.

Follow spatial@ucsb on Twitter | Google+ | Google Calendar